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Read the article : the Beleza Natural” case in your case pack.a Branding memo and, as such, MUST follow the Case Decision Memo format. Not following this format will result in a full letter grade deduction in your grade on the exam. (see case decision description file) As such, it can be a maximum of 2 pages (1 is better), and have a minimum of 4 exhibits, with the first being a SWOT analysis. Additional exhibits can include case material presented in a new way, as well as course tools we have learned over the course of the semester, and including this module.Course tools, beyond the required SWOT analysis, might include (but are not limited to) the Why/How/What framework, a brand equity pyramid and laddering, a Brand Associations Map, Positioning Map, Adjacencies/ Ansoff’s Matrix, Brand Architecture, and the Beleza Community structure/relationships.you should use course tools and case content to address the challenges of Beleza Natural at the point of time in which the case was written, and using case information, and critical analysis, course tools._______________________________________________________________Beleza Natural, Marketing Strategies for Empowering Social ChangeFor your CDM (Case Decision Memo ), take the role of Leila Velez as she grapples with–of all the courses of action she might pursue– which should she pursue now, and given the unique structure of her wildly successful brand. (2-3 max)Which of the 7 courses of action proposed at the end of the case would you choose to pursue NOW (you can choose more than one, but should fully support the option(s) you choose) and why.Support each of your recommendations with a combination of case information and course tools. Please include a SWOT analysis as one of your exhibits.In making your recommendation(s), first consider the Job to Be Done, as well as both “Why” Beleza is in business, and “How” they create value. Consider that both employeesID#110206
PUBLISHED ON
DECEMBER 10, 2020
Beleza Natural
Introduction
It was early Monday morning, before any employees had arrived at the main Beleza Natural
institute.i The Brazilian company’s four founders—CEO Leila Velez; her sister-in-law, Heloísa
Assis; Heloísa’s brother, Rogério Assis; and Heloísa’s husband, Jair Conde—were meeting to
discuss their business improvement and growth plans, which would be presented to potential
investors at the Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness in Latin America (ECLA) programii at
Columbia Business School. Beleza Natural was growing at a rapid pace. Its institutes were
overbooked on most weekends, creating a sense of a missed market opportunity (see Exhibit
1).
For the operational improvement plan, which needed to be implemented over the coming
eight months, they were brainstorming a host of measures, including changing store layouts,
cross-training, hiring more staff, and raising prices. And even though they had nine months
to submit a growth plan, they were also already exploring which other countries would be
good fits with the Beleza Natural model, as they considered a global expansion.
i
Beleza Natural institutes are beauty salons.
The Columbia Business School ECLA program was designed to help Latin American entrepreneurs gain “the
skills, tools, and global mindset to prepare for today’s changing global environment, create a sustainable
competitive advantage, and expand business impact.” (“Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness Programs: Latin
America,” Columbia Business School,
https://www8.gsb.columbia.edu/ecp/latin-america.)
ii
Author affiliation
*
Assistant Professor, Columbia Business School

Professor of Professional Practice and Director, W. Edwards
Deming Center, Columbia Business School

Associate Professor, Columbia Business School
**
Staff Associate, Columbia Business School
***
Associate Professor, Columbia Business School
Copyright information
© 2011-2020 by The Trustees of Columbia University in the City
of New York. This version of the case replaces an earlier version
that was published on October 24, 2011.
Acknowledgements
Medini Singh and Leila Velez provided valuable assistance in the
development of this case.
Ijeoma Anyanwu ’20 provided research and writing assistance on
the 2020 case revision.
This case cannot be used or reproduced without explicit permission
from Columbia CaseWorks. To obtain permission, please visit
www.gsb.columbia.edu/caseworks, or e-mail
ColumbiaCaseWorks@gsb.columbia.edu
This case was sponsored by Sovereign Bank.
Company data has been altered to maintain company
confidentiality.
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
BY OMAR BESBES, * NELSON M. FRAIMAN, † MARCELO OLIVARES, ‡ MARIA J.
QUINTEROS, * * AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB * * *
History of Beleza Natural
Beleza Natural was founded in Rio de Janeiro in 1993. Leila Velez, Heloísa and Rogério Assis,
and Jair Conde had developed a new hair treatment process and business idea. Heloísa Assis
and her husband both had very curly hair, and they wanted it to be smoother, shinier, and less
full, so Heloísa started trying different combinations of hair care products for herself and her
husband, Jair. After years of trial and error, she hit upon the perfect formula for naturally
textured curls, and wavy hair. During that same period, Leila Velez and Rogério Assis worked
at a fast-food chain, where they learned about the benefits of efficiency, productivity, and scale.
Building on that experience, they developed a system for delivering the hair treatment that
Heloísa Assis had created. The process was divided into a series of steps, each performed by
employees trained in the particular skills necessary for that stage of the treatment. With those
ideas in mind, the four partners opened their first beauty institute, specializing in treatments
for naturally curly hair.iv They set out to create a company that, by offering these services at
lower prices than classical salons charged, would enable less affluent Afro-Brazilian women
to have access to professional hair care. Their objective was to use the treatment to loosen their
clients’ natural curl pattern, which would change the hair texture from Type 4 to Type 3 or
from Type 3 to Type 2, for example (see Exhibit 2).
In 2011, Beleza Natural had over 1,000 employees, more than 60,000 customers per month, and
11 beauty institutes—10 in Rio de Janeiro and one in Salvador de Bahia.1 (See Exhibit 3 for a
list of the institutes and their sizes.) Most of its clients were lower-income Afro-Brazilian
women with naturally curly hair who came to Beleza Natural for its main service, the superrelaxante treatment. This exclusive treatment used a patented product that was applied from
the roots to the ends of a client’s hair to alter the hair type, which helped make it shinier and
softer, formed smooth waves, reduced volume, and created greater movement (see Exhibit 4).
iii
The term Afro-Brazilian refers to Black and multiracial Brazilians of African ancestry.
(https://www.encyclopedia.com/places/latin-america-and-caribbean/south-american-political-geography/afrobrazilians.)
iv
It was not uncommon for Afro-Brazilian women to be socially and racially discriminated against based on their
hair texture. As a result, some women sought this treatment to achieve mainstream standards of beauty, among
many other reasons.
Beleza Natural | Page 2
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
Beleza Natural was a Brazilian chain of beauty institutes, which specialized in products and
services for Afro-Brazilianiii women with naturally textured curls, or wavy hair. The company
also had its own factory in Rio de Janeiro, where its research and development team worked
to improve Beleza Natural’s current products and create new ones. All the products used at
the institutes were made at the factory. The company also produced shampoos, conditioners,
and hair creams to sell to clients as maintenance kits for home use. Beleza Natural products
were sold exclusively at the institutes.
Brazil is the largest country in Latin America and was inhabited by indigenous people before
being colonized by the Portuguese in 1500. From the 16th century through the late 18th
century, Brazil’s economy was primarily based on agriculture, specifically exporting sugar,
which required significant investments in land and labor. To meet the needs of increased sugar
production, Brazil became a major importer of enslaved African people, making enslaved
people an estimated 38.3% of the population of Rio de Janeiro, its capital city, by 1550.2 When
Brazil ended legal slavery in 1888 with the passage of the Golden Law, it was the last country
in the Americas to abolish slavery. This history of colonization and slavery in Brazil brought
people from all over Europe, Asia, and West Africa, which contributed to the country’s ethnic
diversity. In 2010, Brazil had a population of more than 190 million, 80 million of whom were
Black or multiracial.3
Brazil’s real GDP grew 7.4% in 2010 and was expected to grow about 4.5% in coming years.
The country had an emerging middle class, making up more than 50% of the population, and
the poverty rate had been falling for several years. Brazil’s income inequalities, which had
been among the highest in the world, started to decline in 2000; in 2010, the country’s Gini
indexv was 51.8% (see Exhibits 5 and 6).
Brazil has strict labor laws, including regulations concerning time off and mandated holidays
(including Sundays). All workers have the right to take 30 vacation days annually and to
receive a year-end bonus equivalent to one month’s salary. In addition, employers are required
to reimburse staff for the cost of transportation to and from work and provide one meal a day.
Hair Care Sector
Going to the hairdresser was deeply rooted in the everyday culture of Latin America. A trip
to the beauty parlor was a social and cultural event, almost as important as the result of the
hair treatment itself. From 2004 to 2009, permanent and relaxant (P&R) sales grew significantly
in Latin America. In 2008, the P&R market accounted for US$1.2 billion worldwide, of which
Latin America had the highest per capita consumption, accounting for about US$450 million.
Even in times of recession, the majority of women stayed loyal to their hairdresser rather than
using cheaper at-home products.
HAIR CARE INDUSTRY IN BRAZIL
In 2008, Brazil ranked third worldwide in the cosmetics and toiletries industry, with sales of
about US$29 billion. The hair care sector represented 25% of those sales (see Exhibits 7 and 8).
Within that sector, shampoos and conditioners were the largest categories, accounting for 65%
of total sales. Salon hair care, a very fragmented and informal sector, was the smallest category.
Brazilian women had little brand loyalty for at-home hair care products, shifting frequently
among them. Exhibit 9 shows hair care sector sales in Brazil by subsector from 2004 to 2009.
v
A Gini index rating of 0% represents perfect equality; a rating of 100% represents absolute inequality.
Page 3 | Beleza Natural
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
Background on Brazil
In 2010, Beleza Natural had sales of about US$65 million (see Exhibit 10 for the company’s
gross revenues from 2001 to 2011). Those sales included super-relaxante treatments and other
services (such as cutting, styling, coloring, manicuring, and pedicuring), as well as Beleza
Natural hair care products. Nearly 90% of the company’s clients were repeat customers.
Beleza Natural
Clients came to Beleza Natural primarily for the super-relaxante treatment. The company’s
other services represented 7% of its revenues. On average, Beleza Natural locations were open
312 days per year. The institutes opened at 8 a.m., Monday through Saturday, and the last
customers of the day were served at 8 p.m. (Beleza Natural would stop accepting customers
once employees estimated that the last accepted customer would not be served until 8 p.m.)
From Monday to Thursday, the number of customers was more or less constant, but over the
weekend that number increased dramatically—by 35% and 75% on Fridays and Saturdays,
respectively.
LABOR TRAINING
In an attempt to maximize efficiency and uniformity of service at the institutes, Beleza Natural
created its own staff development center, the University of Beleza Natural. Hairdressers,
marketing assistants, administrators, salespeople, supervisors, and managers all received
training there.
There were two types of training for hairdressers who gave the super-relaxante treatment. The
first, which took 30 days, was for the auxiliar de cabeleireira (assistant hairdresser), who learned
how to perform the division process—separating hair into small triangular sections—and to
wash and style hair. The second type of training, which took 35 days, was for the consultora de
beleza (Beleza Natural consultant), the professional who performed the super-relaxante
treatment itself. Both the auxiliar de cabeleireira and the consultora de beleza had to pass a
final exam, and new employees were also closely monitored by their manager for three
months. However, Velez observed that although all employees received Beleza Natural
training, the performance of the auxiliar–consultora teams varied. Some were more
experienced or faster than others, which directly affected productivity and the number of
customers who could be served.
Employees who gave the super-relaxante treatment or provided other beauty care services
earned 12 realsvi per hour. There were two six-hour shifts per day. Each institute also had three
vi
US$1 = R$1.67 (December 31, 2010).
Beleza Natural | Page 4
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
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Due primarily to the population’s ethnic mix of Black and multiracial people, it was estimated
that 65% of Brazilians had naturally textured curls or wavy hair 4 , which explained the
predominance of conditioners in the hair care sector. Across the world, Eurocentric, white
beauty standards of straight hair dominate, irrespective of ethnicity and/or profession.5 As a
result, Brazilian women were willing to pay for specialty conditioners, creams, masks, and
other products that add definition to hair and make it smooth, shiny, and healthy.
people in charge of warehouse stock and two people per shift in charge of cleaning, all of
whom earned R$600 per month. In addition, three people per shift worked at the sales counter
at each institute; they earned R$10 per hour. The entire staff received carfare and lunch—which
cost R$12 per day per employee—and a year-end bonus; all those who worked directly with
customers (including sales staff) received R$950 per month.
When a client entered an institute, she took a number and proceeded to the front desk (see
Exhibit 11 for an example of an institute layout). The receptionist then welcomed her, asked if
she had been to a Beleza Natural institute before, and processed her payment; the superrelaxante treatment cost R$65. Taking the client’s ticket and payment took two minutes.
Before proceeding with the super-relaxante treatment, new customers (who represented 10%
of all clients) had to have a hair evaluation given by an employee trained in that procedure.
When a client’s hair was too damaged from a previous coloring treatment, she could not begin
the super-relaxante treatment immediately. Instead, she had to have a hair recovery treatment
at the hydration station and then return to the institute in a month, after having used Beleza
Natural products at home during that period. Ninety percent of those who could not have the
super-relaxante treatment right away chose to have the hair recovery treatment and then wait
as required. The employee who performed the hair evaluation also explained the whole
process to the client and told her about all the products that were available for home use. The
evaluation usually took 10 to 15 minutes.
Next, an employee checked to see that the client had made her payment before she entered the
salon section. Then the client proceeded to the first step of the super-relaxante treatment, the
division process. Depending on the length of the client’s hair and how tangled it was, the
division process took from 10 to 15 minutes. Next, the client was given the super-relaxante
treatment itself; the patented Beleza Natural products were applied, creating smooth hair and
well-defined curls. The super-relaxante process took 40 minutes on average, but it could take
as little as 25 minutes or as much as an hour, depending on the client’s hair type and the
consultora de beleza’s skills. After a client left the super-relaxante station, she went to the
hydration station to have her hair shampooed and conditioned, which took an average of eight
minutes per client.
Last of all, the client had her hair dried and styled, which could include having it cut and/or
colored. Twenty-five percent of clients had their hair cut, which took an average of 10 minutes.
Coloring took an average of 45 minutes, although the hairdresser spent only 15 minutes with
the customer, who then waited 30 minutes more for the dye to set. Only 10% of customers
chose to have their hair colored. While the client had her hair dried and styled, which took 10
minutes on average, the auxiliar also told her how to comb her hair at home.
Once the treatment was finished, customers could buy monthly maintenance products at the
sales counter next to the styling station. Sixty-five percent of customers who received the
super-relaxante treatment bought beauty care products at the institute before leaving. The
average basket value of the products was R$40, with a margin of 50%.
Page 5 | Beleza Natural
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
THE PROCESS
Exhibit 12 shows the number of employees at each station of the super-relaxante process;
Exhibit 13 shows the observed demand for each institute. On average, the products used
during the super-relaxante treatment cost R$4 per customer; the institutes received supplies
of products once a week. Exhibit 14 shows other costs related to the operation of the institutes.
The conjunction of weekly and seasonal patterns of demand along with Brazil’s labor laws
made implementing the necessary operational changes a challenge: If Beleza hired additional
staff to meet the high demand on weekends, the company would end up having to pay salaries
to employees who would be idle for most of the week.
“And even though not all of our employees perform equally well,” she said, “they are all
highly skilled—particularly the consultoras de beleza, who receive special training in the
super-relaxante treatment. We need to bear in mind that hiring additional staff means having
to invest in more training.”
Workforce management was only one among a host of potential issues identified. While Velez
and the rest of the management team well understood the issues and had ideas for potential
fixes, they did not necessarily agree on where they should start. What impact would
improvement measures have on Beleza Natural’s operations, and how should the team
prioritize these measures?
Click here to watch Velez discuss expansion plans at Beleza Natural.
Epilogue
NATURAL HAIR CARE MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES
Around 2005, the natural hair care movement swept through the United States. It was a time
when women of African ancestry stopped chemically relaxing and straightening their hair and
were empowered to embrace their hair texture in its natural state. The movement brought selfexpression, pride, and community. As a result, sales of styling products to enhance naturally
curly hair—such as moisturizers, setting lotions, and curl creams— increased, and sales of
chemical relaxers decreased significantly. In the United States alone, as of 2013, sales of
relaxers declined 26% over a five-year period, and sales were projected to continue declining
through 20247 (see Exhibit 15).
Previously, many women were fearful about wearing their natural hair freely, because of how
it was perceived in the workplace and the potential repercussions that came with it. In July
2019, California’s governor signed the Crown Act into law, making it the first state to ban
discrimination against Black students and employees because of their natural hairstyles.8 The
Crown Act addresses unfair grooming policies that have a disparate impact on Black women,
men, and children and has drawn attention to cultural and racial discrimination taking place
within workplaces and schools.9 “In a society in which hair has historically been one of many
Beleza Natural | Page 6
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
Velez commented, “Many different factors had to be dealt with as we worked to streamline
our process so that we could accommodate more customers.” 6 Click here to watch Velez
discuss operations management issues in her growing company.
determining factors of a person’s race, and whether they were a second-class citizen, hair today
remains a proxy for race,” the bill says. “Therefore, hair discrimination targeting hairstyles
associated with race is racial discrimination.”10 Since then, similar laws have passed in New
York and been introduced in New Jersey. To further support ending hair discrimination,
Unilever cofounded the CROWN (Creating a Respectful and Open World for Natural hair)
Coalition in partnership with the National Urban League, Color of Change, and the Western
Center on Law and Poverty to help create a more equitable and inclusive beauty experience
for Black women and girls.11
The natural hair care movement gained traction in Brazil and all over the world. The Black
beauty market has been growing at an estimated 20% a year in Brazil, according to Kline
Market Research Group.12 Google searches for transição capilar (“transition to natural hair” in
Portuguese) have gone up every year since 2014.13 As younger clients brought new trends and
insights, and with more Afro-Brazilian women embracing their naturally curly hair, Beleza
Natural adapted its services and created a business unit to meet the needs of its changing
clientele. Whereas the super-relaxante was the dominant service offered for many years, by
2020 the salon’s services were more equally split between offering the super-relaxante
treatment and treatments to enhance natural hair styles. Whatever Beleza determined to be its
best path to growth, this dual operating model would need to be factored in to their decision.
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1. Would the Beleza Natural model work in the United States? Why or why not?
2. As Beleza Natural considers global expansion, what are some factors it should
consider regarding market dynamics and business model?
Page 7 | Beleza Natural
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
BELEZA NATURAL TODAY
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Exhibits
Exhibit 1
A Typical Beleza Natural Institute
Source: Company photos.
Beleza Natural | Page 8
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Exhibit 2
Hair Typing System
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Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
The Andre Walker Hair Typing System was created in the 1990s and is one of many methods
used to classify hair types. The system assigns both a number and a letter to characterize and
describe different hair textures (i.e., 1A, 2C, 3B, 4A).
Source: www.andrewalkerhair.com.
Page 9 | Beleza Natural
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Exhibit 2 (cont.)
Type 2 Wavy Hair: Type 2 is wavy hair that usually isn’t overly oily or very dry. The thought
is that Type 2 hair falls right in the middle of Type 1 and Type 3.
 Type 2A hair is fine and thin. It is relatively easy to handle from a styling
perspective because it can easily be straightened or curled.
 Type 2B hair characteristically has waves that tend to adhere to the shape of the
head.
 Type 2C hair will frizz easily and is fairly coarse.
Type 3 Curly Hair: Curly hair textures have a definite “S”-shaped curl pattern. Since the
cuticle doesn’t lay flat, you will notice that curly hair isn’t nearly as shiny as Type 1 (straight
hair) or Type 2 (wavy hair) hair types.
 Type 3A hair is very shiny and loose.
 Type 3B hair has a medium amount of curls, ranging from bouncy ringlets (spiral-like
curls of hair) to tight corkscrews (spiral-shaped corkscrew curls).
 Type 3C hair isn’t a part of the Andre Walker Hair Typing System. A community
member at NaturallyCurly.com created Type 3C after Andre Walker released his hair
typing system. The prevailing thought was that the original system left this hair type
out. Consequently, Type 3C hair has been defined as tight curls or coils that look like
corkscrews.
Type 4 Kinky Hair: Type 4 is “kinky,” or, more appropriately, full of tight coils (tightly curled
hair). Typically, Type 4 hair is also extremely wiry and fragile. Oftentimes, it appears to be
coarse; however, it is really very fine, with several thin hair strands densely packed together.
Note that Type 4 is one of the most common found in Black hair (African-American hair).
 Type 4A hair is full of tight coils. It has an “S” pattern when stretched, much
like Type 3 curly hair.
 Type 4B hair has a less defined pattern of curls and looks more like a “Z,”
because the hair bends with very sharp angles.
 Type 4C hair isn’t a part of the Andre Walker Hair Typing System but was
created by a member of the natural hair community.
Source: www.curlcentric.com/hair-typing-system/.
Beleza Natural | Page 10
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
Type 1 Straight Hair: Generally speaking, Type 1 hair is straight; however, Andre categorizes
this hair type into three very specific segments—Type 1A, Type 1B, and Type 1C.
 Type 1A hair is described as fine, very thin, and soft, with a noticeable shine.
 Type 1B hair is medium-textured and has more body than Type 1A.
 Type 1C hair is the most resistant to curly styling and relatively coarse
compared to other Type 1 categories.
Exhibit 3
Beleza Natural Institutes
Alcântara
Size
(square
meters)
618
# Stations
40
Campo Grande
950
78
Caxias
970
73
Ipanema
976
75
Jacarepaguá
Liberdade-Salvador
490
24
1360
104
Madureira
574
49
Niterói
672
54
Nova Iguaçu
930
36
Tijuca
891
50
Vitória
390
36
Source: ECLA presentation by Beleza Natural, New York City, January 11, 2011.
Note: # Stations refers to places where a consultora de beleza or an auxiliar de cabeleireira performs
her task in the super-relaxante process.
Page 11 | Beleza Natural
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
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Institute
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Exhibit 4
Super-Relaxante Treatment Results
Source: Company publicity materials, https://www.slideshare.net/Marciabn/institucional-beleza-naturalenglish.
Beleza Natural | Page 12
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Exhibit 5
Gini Index Comparison
70.0%
2010
2020
60.0%
40.0%
30.0%
20.0%
10.0%
0.0%
Finland
India
United
States
China
Source: Euromonitor
Page 13 | Beleza Natural
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Brazil
Colombia
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Gini Index
50.0%
Categories
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Social Class A
11,016
11,233
11,469
11,694
11,877
12,062
Social Class B
6,635
6,813
7,048
7,267
7,402
7,544
Social Class C
15,043
15,465
16,027
16,551
16,864
17,203
Social Class D
39,869
40,823
41,985
43,071
43,847
44,698
Social Class E
58,849
59,228
59,116
59,126
59,794
60,366
Note: Social Class A includes individuals with a gross income greater than 200% of the average gross
income of all individuals aged 15+. The number of people in the class is based on the de jure definition
of population, which counts all individuals in a geographical area on the basis of their place of residence.
Annual gross income refers to income before taxes, including earnings from employment, investments,
benefits, and remittances, as well as to social security contributions from all sources.
Social Class B includes individuals with a gross income between 150% and 200% of the average gross
income of all individuals aged 15+. The number of people in the class is based on the de jure definition
of population, which counts all individuals in a geographical area on the basis of their place of residence.
Annual gross income refers to income before taxes, including earnings from employment, investments,
benefits, and remittances, as well as to social security contributions from all sources.
Social Class C includes individuals with a gross income between 100% and 150% of the average gross
income of all individuals aged 15+. The number of people in the class is based on the de jure definition
of population, which counts all individuals in a geographical area on the basis of their place of residence.
Annual gross income refers to income before taxes, including earnings from employment, investments,
benefits, and remittances, as well as to social security contributions from all sources.
Social Class D includes individuals with a gross income between 50% and 100% of the average gross
income of all individuals aged 15+. The number of people in the class is based on the de jure definition
of population, which counts all individuals in a geographical area on the basis of their place of residence.
Annual gross income refers to income before taxes, including earnings from employment, investments,
benefits, and remittances, as well as to social security contributions from all sources.
Social Class E includes individuals with a gross income less than 50% of the average gross income of
all individuals aged 15+. The number of people in the class is based on the de jure definition of
population, which counts all individuals in a geographical area on the basis of their place of residence.
Annual gross income refers to income before taxes, including earnings from employment, investments,
benefits, and remittances, as well as to social security contributions from all sources.
Beleza Natural | Page 14
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
Exhibit 6
Social Class Composition in Brazil (in thousands)
Source: “Brazil: Key Player in Global Beauty and Personal Care Growth,” Euromonitor International.
Exhibit 8
Cosmetics and Toiletry Market in Brazil
Source: “Brazil: Key Player in Global Beauty and Personal Care Growth,” Euromonitor International.
Page 15 | Beleza Natural
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
Exhibit 7
Cosmetics and Toiletry Market
Source: Euromonitor International estimates.
Exhibit 10
Beleza Natural Gross Income 2001 to 2011 (Million Reals)
Source: ECLA presentation by Beleza Natural, New York City, January 11, 2011.
Beleza Natural | Page 16
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
Exhibit 9
Hair Care Sales by Subsector in Brazil
Source: ECLA presentation by Beleza Natural, New York City, January 11, 2011.
Page 17 | Beleza Natural
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
Exhibit 11
Example of Institute Layout
Exhibit 12
Staff Performing Super-Relaxante Treatment
Institute
Reception
Division
Alcântara
1
4
Campo Grande
2
Caxias
Super
Relaxing
Hydration
Hairstyling
10
3
5
6
14
5
7
2
7
16
6
9
Ipanema
2
3
10
2
4
Jacarepaguá
1
3
10
3
4
Liberdade-Salvador
1
3
14
2
5
Madureira
2
8
18
4
9
Niterói
2
6
14
3
6
Nova Iguaçu
2
5
12
3
6
Tijuca
2
5
14
3
6
Vitória
1
4
12
3
6
Source: ECLA presentation by Beleza Natural, New York City, January 11, 2011.
Exhibit 13
Observed Demand
Clients
per month
Clients per
week
Clients MonThu
Clients Fri
Clients Sat
Alcântara
5,000
1,167
164
223
288
Campo Grande
7,000
1,634
230
311
403
Caxias
7,700
1,797
253
342
443
Ipanema
3,500
816
115
155
201
Jacarepaguá
LiberdadeSalvador
3,500
816
115
155
201
4,100
958
135
182
236
Madureira
8,900
2,081
293
396
513
Niterói
6,400
1,492
210
284
368
Nova Iguaçu
6,000
1,399
197
266
345
Tijuca
6,200
1,448
204
275
357
Vitória
5,150
1,200
169
228
296
Institute
Source: ECLA presentation by Beleza Natural, New York City, January 11, 2011.
Note: Mon-Thu reflects daily totals.
Beleza Natural | Page 18
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
# workers at each station
Exhibit 14
Beleza Natural Operating Costs
Cost
(Reals in
000’s)
Electricity, gas, and water
6,000
70
Depreciation
1,500
General management
7,000
Marketing
200
Source: ECLA presentation by Beleza Natural, New York City, January 11, 2011.
Page 19 | Beleza Natural
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
Rent
Relaxer sales continue to plummet to niche status
In 2019, at-home relaxer sales are expected to reach $403 million. By 2024, Mintel, a global
market research firm, expects this segment to fall to $135.5 million, which will be below hair
color. A desire for chemical-free hair, rather than a total abandonment of straight styles, is
behind such a precipitous decline in sales. While there are Black women across all age groups
who still use relaxers, most fall within the baby boomer or older group who are simply
accustomed to wearing relaxed hair. As this segment ages and is no longer active in the
category, brands and retailers will shrink their offerings to consumers.
Source: Mintel Black Haircare—US—August 2019 Report
Beleza Natural | Page 20
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
Exhibit 15
Black Hair Care Market Growth in the United States
Endnotes
All company data is taken from an ECLA presentation by Beleza Natural in New York on
January 11, 2011, and from a meeting with Leila Velez in New York on May 7, 2019, with
Carri Chan and Ijeoma Anyanwu.
2 Exodus Cry, “4.5 Million Enslaved Africans Went to Brazil,” https://exoduscry.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/08/liberdade_history_of_slavery.png.
3 Euromonitor reports are the source for all country and industry data cited in this case,
unless otherwise noted.
4 Hy Mariampolski, Maribel Carvalho, Suarez Leticia Moreira Casotti, “Beleza Natural:
Expanding from the Base of the Pyramid,” ESOMAR, 2010,
https://mba.americaeconomia.com/sites/mba.americaeconomia.com/files/fgv_paper.pdf.
5 Branca Lessa de Sá, “Meet The Influencers Making Brazil’s Natural Hair Movement
Mainstream,” Vice (April 18, 2019), https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/43jdnn/brazilianwomen-natural-hair-movement-influencers.
6 All statements by Leila Velez are cited from an April 8, 2011, phone interview.
7 Mintel Press Office, “Hair Relaxer Sales Decline 26% Over the Past Five Years” (September
5, 2013), https://www.mintel.com/press-centre/beauty-and-personal-care/hairstyle-trendshair-relaxer-sales-decline; Mintel, “Black Haircare—US—August 2019” (August 2019),
https://store.mintel.com/black-haircare-us-august-2019.
8 CBSNews.com, “California becomes first state to ban discrimination against natural hair,”
(July 4, 2019), https://www.cbsnews.com/news/crown-act-california-becomes-first-state-toban-discrimination-against-natural-hair/.
9 The CROWN Coalition, “Creating a Respectful and Open World for Natural Hair,”
https://www.thecrownact.com/.
10 Liam Stack, “California Is First State to Ban Discrimination Based on Natural Hair,” The
New York Times (June 28, 2019), https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/28/us/natural-hairdiscrimination-ban.html.
11 Dove.com, “Ending Discrimination Against Black Hair with The CROWN Coalition”
(2019), https://www.dove.com/us/en/stories/campaigns/the-crown-act.html.
12 Marina Lopes, “Black Brazilians are ditching hair straighteners and white standards of
beauty,” The Washington Post June 19, 2018,
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/the_americas/black-brazilians-are-ditching-hairstraighteners-and-white-standards-of-beauty/2018/06/18/25499a0e-6d8c-11e8-b4d8eaf78d4c544c_story.html.
13 Lessa de Sá, “Meet The Influencers.”
Page 21 | Beleza Natural
BY OMAR BESBES,* NELSON M. FRAIMAN,† MARCELO OLIVARES,‡
MARIA J. QUINTEROS,** AND GABRIEL Y. WEINTRAUB***
Authorized for use only by carina diez in branding at University of Cincinnati from 7/28/2023 to 8/1/2023.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation.
1
Case Decision Memo Description, Peer Example, and Rubric
I. Background: What is a Business Memorandum?
As background, business memorandums are often sent to managers and senior executives
with the goal of gaining their support for a specific decision or course of action that you are
proposing. It is important to note that the memorandum recipient often starts by skimming
a memorandum for the key idea(s) and support. If this is hard to find or communicated in a
way that is confusing to follow, the reader will often simply move on to the next task at
hand and never fully consider your proposal. As such, it is important to lay out your case in
a way that quickly and strongly conveys what you are proposing, as well as the support for
why you believe this is the right course of action.
Due to the purpose of the document and its intended audience, the writing style of a
business memo is extremely different than a traditional academic paper. Specifically, as
illustrated below, the writing is much “tighter”, using the minimum words necessary to
convey each point. In terms of a general format, after an introductory sentence or two:
• Specific recommendations are usually numbered and highlighted in bold.
• Support for each recommendation then immediately follows, often using bullet points to
separate each support point.
• Finally, exhibits are attached at the end of document and then referenced when
appropriate within the document. An exhibit is never attached without being
referenced in the memorandum. Conversely, charts are very seldom found embedded
within the memorandum itself. Every recommendation MUST cite at least 1 exhibit.
II.
What Is Included in Analyzing a Case for a Decision Memo
A case analysis is an exercise in strategic and critical thinking, with clear, well supported
recommendations. This is hard work and, with practice over the course of your Masters
degree, you will begin to develop frameworks and principles that provide guidance, along
with the discipline to systemically take apart and understand problems in order to develop
meaningful and practical solutions.
• No outside research is necessary, nor should it be done.
• Rather, you should work to solve the problem presented in the case, at the time of the
case. This should be done ONLY with the information supplied in the case, and with the
application of course theory and tools.
III.



Format Details
The case decision memo itself is limited to 2 pages (max), and 1 is even better.
The memo should start with:
TO:
(A Key Player in the Case)
FROM: (Your Team)
RE:
(Brief Problem Statement)
Following the Memo heading (To/From/Re: ), begin memo by briefly stating the background leading
up to and specific problem to be addressed and summarize your main recommendation(s). (3-ish
sentences.)



IV.
The remaining portion of the memo should detail and support each of your recommendations. This
portion of the assignment should include several concise recommendation statements followed by
bulleted support points.
Recommendations and support should link to the current and prior weeks’ marketing concepts, along
with the issues presented in the case.
A minimum of 3 exhibits should be at the end of your Case Decision Memo for team assignments; 4
exhibits are required for the Individual Exam). The first exhibit is required to be a SWOT analysis
(must be labeled Exhibit 1). Additional exhibits can take course tools and apply them to your case
analysis or provide additional analysis of case material/ exhibits. (Note—exhibits cannot simply be
copied directly from the case itself; they must reflect new thinking.)
Case Decision Memo Example:
The Case Decision Memo example that follows was written by students in this class and was
chosen as an example based on their strength in each area of the grading rubric, which is
appears in the syllabus and at the end of this document.
TO: Mike Keefe
FROM: Team 9
RE: Keep and Strengthen Harley Posse Ride
Background: Harley Owners Group (H.O.G.) is a members-only division of Harley
Davidson, Inc. Membership is automatic with the purchase of a bike, with renewal rates
of 75%. One of the biggest benefits of H.O.G. membership is participation in the rallies
and the Posse Ride. This ride is open to a limited number of riders, as well as some senior
managers of Harley Davidson. The Posse Ride just finished its second year, and Harley
needs to decide to keep the ride going or end it.
Recommendation #1: Harley should keep the Posse Ride
● One of the main factors that sets Harley apart from other bike companies is the
camaraderie of the biker community. When a person buys a Harley, they are
buying more than a motorcycle: they are joining a community and making a key
statement about who you are and how you see yourself. As one Posse Rider put it,
“[Harley] is a mystique, a lifestyle as opposed to a brand.”
● Financially, the Posse Ride is a clear winner. While the destination rallies can cost
millions of dollars to put on, the Ride is about $100,000. Thus, if 400 riders
participate, any registration fees over $250 are pure profit.
● Beyond the financial considerations, the Posse Ride is valuable as a reflection of
the Harley brand’s core equity. As Exhibit 4 shows, the brand has a rugged,
‘cowboy’ image and the Posse Ride really leans into that with its oath and other
rituals. The brand as a whole ladders up to being a ‘Harley person,’ making it a
core part of a rider’s identity. The Posse Ride reinforces that. As Exhibit 5 shows,
all of the attributes of the ride end up reinforcing that sense of identity and
accomplishment. If H.O.G. membership signals one as a highly engaged Harley
owner, the Posse Ride makes one like “Harley royalty.” The ride has an
aspirational quality that showcases the best of Harley, and that all customers can
dream about themselves joining someday. It’s like “Hell’s Angels” for respectable
Harley owners.
Recommendation #2: Operate the Ride more efficiently
● While the ride is successful, with a few changes, the ride could be even better.
Looking at Exhibit 2, we can see that ride was a success in that measures of ride
recommendation and H.O.G. engagement were up. However, there were distinct
decreases in responses about how responsive Harley is to riders’ needs and
sensibilities. This is likely due to the organizational hiccups that occurred.
● To keep the integrity of the ride, the cap on participants is important. Keeping the
rider limit at 400 helps riders to realize they are part of a select tribe of people. It
also keeps the intimacy of the group. This allows individuals on the ride to get to
know each other well, without being overwhelmed by the size of the group.
● Next, Harley needs to fix the more direct problems that were encountered on this
ride. The two biggest issues were with the t-shirts and the long wait times at the
end of the event. According to the survey results, riders believe Harley genuinely
understands their riders. If this is the case, Harley’s leadership should recognize
the t-shirts are a status symbol and therefore, they need to be a top priority on the
ride. To eliminate wait times and reduce the weight riders have to carry, t-shirts
from every dealership and the overall ride can be purchased as a package and
shipped to each participant after the ride.
● At the end of the program, the riders had to wait in another line to get their
certificates for the ride. By the end of the ride, the last thing riders wanted to do
was stand around and wait for a certificate. This could be a simple fix handled
with Harley mailing the certificates instead of having the riders get them on the
final evening.
Recommendation #3: H.O.G. maximization
● Beyond the Posse Ride, the overall H.O.G. experience is crucial to creating a core
of loyal Harley customers and meeting their needs. As Exhibit 3 shows, Harley
customer have a number of ‘jobs to be done,’ from the practical, like roadside
assistance, to the personal, particularly being part of a more reputable group of
riders. It is important to understand the customer and the listed jobs to be done to
continue to create events that maximize the H.O.G.’s value.
● For the company, the benefits of H.O.G. are clear: Approximately one-third of
H.O.G.’s half a million members are ‘active’ and bring clear value to the
company. Compared to ‘inactive’ riders, ‘active’ H.O.G. members spend
additional $850, driving a total of $141.7 million, annually.
● Beyond the clear financial value, management really gets to learn about their
customers. During the events staff are busy engaging and speaking with
customers rather than many of their typical responsibilities. Like Joe Dowd says,
“I’m so close to the customer, I am the customer” (pg 20).
● The consumer profiles give insights into why certain demographics are showing
up for the events and can be applied to creating future events, maximizing
H.O.G.’s potential for expanding the core of loyal customers. We know the
median salary is $55,570, the consumers still in the workforce, with lower
salaries, may not be able to take weeks off to ride across the country on a Posse
Ride. Taking these consumer insights, H.O.G. can be maximized in different
ways, such as developing a tiered series of Posse Rides. The highest tier being a
cross country ride, lower tiers can include weekend rides to include lower salary
riders, as well as increased amount of shorter rides to be accessible more often
rather than the highest tier cross country trip. In particular, we should put on
couples’ and female-only rides, because presently only 13% of H.O.G. members
are female.
APPENDIX











Strengths
Strong Brand Name
Core Product
Brand History
Customer Loyalty
Made in the US
Product Quality
Opportunities
Growth outside US (Asia)
Growing US market
Growing “made in the US”
consumer interest
Environmentally friendly vs. car
Elec bike market
Exhibit 1







Weaknesses
Declining product sales and share
Core customer aging out of the
market
Product not fresh
Limited financial resources
CEO turnover
Staff moral
Non-US market share
Political affiliation
High Price Point




Threats
Competitors from Asia
Lower Prices
Trade issues
Political affiliation


Exhibit 2: Mean Survey Responses Pre- and Post-Posse Ride
DECREASE IN
CUSTOMER CARE
*Notice that the chat above has been edited to highlight important information (red and
green boxes), in support of the recommendation.
Exhibit 3: Jobs to Be Done
Exhibit 4: Customer Based Brand Equity Pyramid
Exhibit 5: Hierarchical Values Map

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