Chat with us, powered by LiveChat SCI 3254 – The functional unit of the kidney is the - Uni Pal

1. The functional unit of the kidney is the?

a) Loop of Henle

b) Collecting ducts

c) Nephron

d) Glomerulus

2. Reabsorption?

a) Is the movement of a substance from lumen of the nephron to the peritubular capillaries

b) Is the movement of a substance from the peritubular capillaries to the lumen of the nephron

c) Is movement of blood fluids (plasma) from the glomerulus to Bowman’s capsule

d) None of the above

3. An increase in blood osmolarity would be expected to cause which of the following?

a) ADH release from the adrenal gland

b) Decreased blood pressure

c) Increased osmolarity of the urine

d) Sodium reabsorption in the collecting duct

4. If there was a marked increase in venous return resulting in a large volume in the atrium, which of the following would occur?

a) The distal tubule and collecting duct would increase reabsorption of sodium

b) The distal tubule and collecting duct would secrete potassium

c) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) blood levels would increase

d) Glomerular filtration rate would increase

5. If the aquaporins in the descending Loop of Henle were mutated and could not transport water the kidney would?

a) Not reabsorb sodium in the Loop of Henle

b) Not efficiently reabsorb water in the collecting duct

c) Still reabsorb sodium in the descending Loop of Henle

d) None of the above

6. Increased blood potassium would be expected to have which of the following effects?

a) An increase in the sodium potassium ATPase on the basolateral membrane

b) An increase in renin

c) An increase in aldosterone

d) a), and c)

e) b) and c)

7. To compensate for a decrease in blood pH the lungs would increase ventilation. To compensate for the inability of the lungs to maintain pH homeostasis the kidneys would?

a) Increase GFR

b) Increase urine bicarbonate (HCO3-) excretion

c) Increase H+ reabsorption

d) Increase urine ammonium (NH4+) excretion

8. If the clearance of Substance X is less than GFR, Substance X is likely freely filtered and reabsorbed?

a) True

b) False

9. Glucose

a) Is co-transported with sodium by secondary active transport

b) Reabsorption requires the Na+/K+ ATPase pump

c) 100% reabsorption occurs when blood glucose levels exceed 300 mg/dl

d) a and b are correct

10. Glomerular filtration rate is?

a) Maintained constant by myogenic autoregulation which dilates the afferent arteriole when blood pressure increases

b) Maintained constant by myogenic autoregulation which constricts the afferent arteriole when blood pressure decreases

c) Maintained constant by myogenic autoregulation which constricts the afferent arteriole when blood pressure increases

d) Maintained constant by juxtaglomerular feedback which responds to flow past the proximal tubule

11. Which of the following statements gives the correct order of blood flow of through nephron?

a) Afferent arterioles, glomerulus, peritubular capillaries, efferent arteriole

b) Afferent arterioles, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries

c) Efferent arterioles, glomerulus, afferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries

d) Afferent arterioles, peritubular capillaries, glomerulus, efferent arteriole12

12. Increased levels of the hormone PTH in the blood will affect the kidney by?

a) Increasing calcium reabsorption

b) Increasing calcium excretion

c) Increasing the amount of calcium ATPase on the apical membrane

d) a) and c)

13. A person given an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor?

a) Will reabsorb more H2O in the collecting duct

b) Will reabsorb more Na+ in the distal tubule

c) Will excrete urine that has a high volume

d) Will excrete urine that has a high potassium levels

14. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) increases water reabsorption in the collecting duct by binding to receptors that result in insertion of aquaporins into the apical membrane?

a) True

b) False

15. Renin secretion by juxtaglomerular cells is?

a) Increased due to increased pressure in the afferent arteriole

b) Decreased by increased renal sympathetic nerve activity

c) increased by increased flow pass the macula densa cells

d) increased by a drop in blood pressure

16. Increasing Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels will result in?

a) Vasodilation of the afferent arterioles of the kidney

b) Decreased renin release

c) Increase in angiotensin II levels

d) a and b are correct

17. Increasing Aldosterone levels will result in?

a) Increased osmolarity of the urine

b) Decreased blood pressure

c) Decreased blood sodium levels

d) Increased blood pressure

18. Which of the following would cause a decrease in the secretion of ADH?

a) Increased osmolarity of blood

b) Decreased blood pressure

c) Decreased osmolarity of blood

d) Increased blood pressure

19. Which of the following would be expected to cause renal glomerulus filtration rate (GFR) to increase?

a) Dilation of the afferent arteriole

b) Stimulation of sympathetic activity

c) Constriction of the afferent arteriole

d) None of the above are correct

20. The function of the Vasa Recta is

a) Establish the osmolarity gradient in the cortex

b) Establish the osmolarity gradient in the medulla

c) Maintain the osmolarity gradient in the cortex

d) Maintain the osmolarity gradient in the medulla

21. During respiratory alkalosis?

a) Beta intercalated cells secrete H+ and reabsorb bicarbonate

b) Beta intercalated cells reabsorb bicarbonate and H+

c) Beta intercalated cells secrete bicarbonate and reabsorb H+

d) Alpha intercalated cells secrete H+ and reabsorb bicarbonate

22. Estrogen production from testosterone

a) Requires the enzyme aromatase

b) Occurs in the brain of males

c) Occurs in granulosa cells

d) All the above are correct.

23. Plasma progesterone levels are highest during which phase of the human menstrual cycle?

a) Menstrual phase

b) Follicular Phase

c) Ovulatory Phase

d) Luteal Phase

24. The stimulus which causes the mid-cycle LH surge is______________.

a) Rapidly falling estrogen levels

b) Rapidly falling progesterone levels

c) Rapidly rising estrogen levels and increased progesterone levels

d) Falling inhibin levels

25. Mullerian Inhibitory Substance (MIS) secreted by the dominant follicle

a) Inhibits the sensitivity of non-dominant follicles to LH

b) Inhibits the sensitivity of non-dominant follicles to inhibin

c) Inhibits the sensitivity of non-dominant follicles to FSH

d) Inhibits the sensitivity of non-dominant follicles to estrogen

26. Menopause is characterized by which the following?

a) High estrogen levels

b) Low GnRH levels

c) Low estrogen levels in plasma

d) Low levels of FSH in plasma

27. What can follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) secretion be inhibited by?

a) Estrogen

b) Inhibin

c) Progesterone

d) a) and b)

e) All the above

28. During the proliferative phase:

a) Estrogen decreases the growth of spiral arteries

b) Estrogen causes cervical mucus to thicken and become sticky

c) Estrogen and FSH induce formation of more FSH receptors on granulosa cells

d) Estrogen causes an increase in body temperature

29. What initiates the pubertal event in males?

a) Increased pulses of GnRH

b) Reduced levels of LH

c) Reduced FSH levels in plasma

d) Reduced Leydig cell function

30. Stimulation of the vagus nerve regulates the function of the stomach by?

a) Increasing secretion of pepsinogen

b) Increasing histamine secretion

c) Increasing motility

d) a) and b) are correct

e) All of the above are correct

31. Histamine

a) Release is reduced by increased gastrin levels

b) Stimulates secretion of H+ into the stomach

c) Decreases the release of pepsinogen

d) Stimulates contraction of the gallbladder

32. Chylomicrons?

a) Enter the lymphatic system through lacteals in the GI tract

b) First enter the circulation through capillary beds in the GI tract

c) Are acted on by skeletal muscles lipoprotein lipase (LPL) to yield fatty acids

d)` a and c are correct

33. Which one of the following statements is true?

a) Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) is decresed when glucose is present in the small intestine

b) Secretin stimulates release of bicarbonate by the liver

c) Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates gastric motility and secretion.

d) Motilin stimulates the Migration motor pattern

34. Which one of the following statements is correct?

a) To be effective enterokinase must be converted from an inactive to an active form.

b) The pancreas secretes acid to neutralize chyme that enters the small intestine.

c) Mucous cells secrete mucous and bicarbonate to prevent HCL from

damaging the stomach

d) The primary exocrine function of the pancreas is to secrete gastrin

35. Which of the following statements is correct?

a) Activation of parasympathetic nerves increases the frequency and strength of of contraction of smooth muscle in the small intestine

b) Gastrin increase motility of the stomach and decreases motility of the small intestine

c) Nitric oxide (NO) causes contraction of contraction of smooth muscle in the small intestine

d) None of the above is correct

36. Which one of the following statements is correct?

a) The stomach, small intestine and large intestine absorb proteins and carbohydrates.

b) Breakdown of carbohydrates occurs primarily in the stomach.

c) The stomach mixes the bolus of food into chyme, releases it into the small intestine for further digestion of proteins and carbohydrates.

d) Trigylcerides are broken into monogycerides and fatty acids which are absorbed in the large intestine

37. The brush border enzyme _____ breaks down a disaccharide to yield glucose and fructose?

a) Lactase

b) Maltase

c) Sucrase

d) Fructase

38. The large intestine?

a) Has large surface area due to the presence of Villi and microvilli that allow rapid absorption of proteins and carbohydrates

b) Is not able to reabsorb water

c) Contain bacteria which produce folic acid and vitamin K

d) Contain bacteria that convert heme to bilirubin

39. Which of the following statements is correct?

a) Gastrin inhibits gastric motility

b) Gastrin secretion is inhibited when the pH of the stomach increases above 3.

c) Gastrin secretion is increased by the presence of amino acids and peptides in the stomach.

d) All the above are correct

40. The liver has multiple functions that include?

a) Bile production

b) Converting bilirubin to urobilinogen

c) Production of clotting factors

d) A and C are correct

e) All the above are correct

41. Which of following pairs is NOT correct?

a) Mucosa: absorptive layer of GI tract

b) Lysozyme: antibacterial agent

c) Intrinsic factor: required for Vitamin B12 absorption in small intestine

d) Pharyngeal phase of deglutition: under voluntary control

42. Water absorption?

a) Occurs primarily in the stomach

b) Primarily occurs in the small intestine

c) Is decreased in the large intestine when aldosterone levels increase

d) None of the above are correct

43. Bicarbonate is?

a) Secreted by the pancreas

b) Secreted by Brunner’s gland in the small intestine

c) Secreted by mucous cells in the stomach

d) All the above are correct

44. False puberty (adrenarche) is due to

a) Testosterone released by the adrenal gland

b) Estrogen released by the ovary

c) Testosterone released by the testes

d) None of the above

45. The Mullerian ducts in presence of testosterone become male reproductive structures.

a) True

b) False

46. In males Testosterone

a) Is produced by leydig cells

b) Promotes growth of the penis

c) Promotes growth of the larynx

d) All of the above

47. Following activation of the parasympathetic system in the penis NO is produced which

a) Binds directly to calcium channels on vascular smooth muscle causing increased resulting in an erection.

b) Binds and activates guanylate cyclase

c) Binds and Inhibits Myosin-light chain kinase (MLCK)

d) None of the above is correct

48. Which of the following statements is correct?

a) Spermatocytes are fully motile when released into the lumen of the Seminiferous tubules

b) During ejaculation the seminal vesicles add fluid containing fructose

c) Following ejaculation semen initially clots

d) b and c are correct

49. An elderly patient who is institutionalized has extremely low levels of albumin. The

patience MAP was 85 and constant. Which of the following is likely to occur?

a) Myogenic regulation would maintain constant GFR

b) Tubuloglomerular feedback would maintain constant GFR

c) Sympathetic activity would decrease GFR

d) a and b

50. A patient has low to non-existing levels of Intrinsic Factor. We would expect:

a) Vit. B12 absorption in the stomach to be impaired

b) Vit. B12 absorption in the small intestine to be impaired

c) Vit. B12 absorption in the large intestine to be impaired

d) None of the above

error: Content is protected !!