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NRP511 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 1 Quiz

Question 1During an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction, what causes bronchospasm?

Bronchial edema caused by the chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis

Bronchial edema caused by binding of the cytotropic antibody

Smooth muscle contraction caused by histamine bound to H1 receptors

Smooth muscle contraction caused by histamine bound to H2 receptors

Question 2Vaccinations are able to provide protection against certain microorganisms because of what?

Strong response from IgM

Level of protection provided by IgG

Memory cells for IgE

Rapid response from IgA

Question 3In the later stages of an inflammatory response, which phagocytic cell is predominant?

Neutrophils

Monocytes

Chemokines

Eosinophils

Question 4The common hay fever allergy is expressed through a reaction that is mediated by which class of immunoglobulins?

IgE

IgG

IgM

T cells

Question 5What is the inflammatory effect of nitric oxide (NO)?

Increases capillary permeability, and causes pain

Increases neutrophil chemotaxis and platelet aggregation

Causes smooth muscle contraction and fever

Decreases mast cell function, and decreases platelet aggregation

Question 6Where are antibodies produced?

Helper T lymphocytes

Thymus gland

Plasma cells

Bone marrow

Question 7A patient is admitted to the hospital with multiple myeloma (MM). Which diagnostic test should the healthcare professional assess as the priority?

Serum potassium level

Serum calcium level

Bone scan or limb x-rays

Bone marrow biopsy

Question 8Frequently when H1 and H2 receptors are located on the same cells, they act in what fashion?

Synergistically

Additively

Antagonistically

Agonistically

 

NRP511 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 2 Quiz

Question 1A healthcare professional is reviewing a patient’s laboratory results and sees that the patient has a low reticulocyte count and a high iron level. Which type of anemia does the professional associate these findings with?

Folate deficiency anemia

Iron deficiency anemia

Hemolyticanemia

Anemia of chronic disease

Question 2Most protein hormones are transported in the bloodstream and are what?

Bound to a lipid-soluble carrier

Free in an unbound, water-soluble form

Bound to a water soluble-binding protein

Free because of their lipid-soluble chemistry

Question 3The effects of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion include which solute?

Sodium and water retention

Sodium retention and water loss

Sodium dilution and water retention

Sodium dilution and water loss

Question 4What is diabetes insipidus a result of?

Antidiuretic hormone hyposecretion

Antidiuretic hormone hypersecretion

Insulin hyposecretion

Insulin hypersecretion

That’s not correct

Question 5A patient has pernicious anemia and asks the healthcare professional to explain the disease. Which statement by the professional is most accurate?

The lack of certain foods in your diet

Your body cannot absorb vitamin B12.

You are not getting enough vitamin C.

Your bone marrow has stopped working.

Question 6Without prior exposure to an antigen, which cells are able to destroy some types of tumor cells and some virus-infected cells?

Lymphocytes

Plasma cells

Megakaryocytes

Natural killer (NK) cells

Question 7Which of these is the role of nitric oxide (NO) in hemostasis?

Stimulates the release of fibrinogen to maintain the platelet plug.

Stimulates the release of clotting factors V and VII.

Causes vasoconstriction and stimulates platelet aggregation.

Controls platelet activation through in concert with prostacyclin.

Question 8Which of these is a lipid-soluble hormone?

Cortisol

Oxytocin

Epinephrine

Growth hormone

 

NRP511 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 3 Quiz

Question 1What is the most important negative inotropic agent?

Norepinephrine

Epinephrine

Acetylcholine

Dopamine

Question 2Regarding the endothelium, what is the difference between healthy vessel walls and those that promote clot formation?

Inflammation and roughening of the endothelium of the artery are present.

Hypertrophy and vasoconstriction of the endothelium of the artery are present.

Excessive clot formation and lipid accumulation in the endothelium of the artery are present.

Evidence of age-related changes that weaken the endothelium of the artery is present.

Question 3

An infant has a loud, harsh, holosystolic murmur and systolic thrill that can be detected at the left lower sternal border that radiates to the neck. These clinical findings are consistent with which congenital heart defect?

Atrial septal defect (ASD)

Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

Atrioventricular canal (AVC) defect

Question 4Which laboratory test is an indirect measure of atherosclerotic plaque?

Homocysteine

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

C-reactive protein (CRP)

Question 5What is the major determinant of the resistance that blood encounters as it flows through the systemic circulation?

Volume of blood in the systemic circulation

Muscle layer of the metarterioles

Muscle layer of the arterioles

Force of ventricular contraction

Question 6What effect does atherosclerosis have on the development of an aneurysm?

Atherosclerosis causes ischemia of the intima.

It increases nitric oxide.

Atherosclerosis erodes the vessel wall.

It obstructs the vessel.

Question 7What is the initiating event that leads to the development of atherosclerosis?

Release of the inflammatory cytokines

Macrophages adhere to vessel walls.

Injury to the endothelial cells that line the artery walls

Release of the platelet-deprived growth factor

 

NRP511 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 5 Quiz

Question 1A patient is having a spirometry measurement done and asks the healthcare professional to explain this test. What response by the professional is best?

To evaluate the cause of hypoxia

To measure the volume and flow rate during forced expiration

To measure the gas diffusion rate at the alveolocapillary membrane

To determine pH and oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations

Question 2A 7 year-old-child presents to the clinic where parents report signs and symptoms consistent with asthma. What does the healthcare professional do in order to confirm this diagnosis?

Assess for a parental history of asthma

Draw serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophil levels

Measure expiratory flow rate with spirometry testing

Give a trial of asthma medication and check for improvement

Question 3Why is nasal congestion a serious threat to young infants?

Infants are obligatory nose breathers.

Their nares are small in diameter.

Infants become dehydrated when mouth breathing.

Their epiglottis is proportionally greater than the epiglottis of an adult’s.

Question 4The core defects of asthma include: (choose the best response)

inflammation/alveolar destruction/bronchoconstriction

mucous production/alveolar destruction/bronchoconstriction

inflammation/mucous production/bronchoconstriction

obstruction/mucous production/bronchoconstriction

Question 5What does the student learn about ventilation?

Hypoventilation causes hypocapnia.

Hypoventilation causes alkalosis.

Hyperventilation causes hypocapnia.

Hyperventilation causes acidosis.

Question 6Fluid in the pleural space characterizes which condition?

Pleural effusion

Atelectasis

Bronchiectasis

Ischemia

Question 7Bronchiolitis tends to occur during the first years of life and is most often caused by what type of infection?

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

Influenza virus

Adenoviruses

Rhinovirus

Question 8Which statement best describes cystic fibrosis?

Obstructive airway disease characterized by reversible airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and inflammation

Respiratory disease characterized by severe hypoxemia, decreased pulmonary compliance, and diffuse densities on chest x-ray imaging

Pulmonary disorder involving an abnormal expression of a protein-producing viscous mucus that obstructs the airways, pancreas, sweat ducts, and vas deferens

Pulmonary disorder characterized by atelectasis and increased pulmonary resistance as a result of a surfactant deficiency

 

NRP511 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 6 Quiz

Question 1ADD/ADHD involves which of the following neurotransmitters in its pathophysiology? (choose the best answer)

serotonin

acetylcholine

dopamine and norepinephrine

norepinephrine and serotonin

Question 2Clinical manifestations of Parkinson disease are caused by a deficit in which of the brain’s neurotransmitters?

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

Dopamine

Norepinephrine

Acetylcholine

Question 3Which of the meninges closely adheres to the surface of the brain and spinal cord and follows the sulci and fissures?

Dura mater

Arachnoid

Pia mater

Inner dura

Question 4Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system abnormalities exist in a large percentage of individuals with what?

Schizophrenia

Major depression

Mania

Panic disorder

Question 5Where is the neurotransmitter, norepinephrine, secreted?

Somatic nervous system

Parasympathetic preganglion

Sympathetic postganglion

Parasympathetic postganglion

Question 6Which of the following gliomas is considered the highest grade and thus most serious?

Pilocytic astrocytoma

Astrocytoma multiforme

Anaplastic oligodendroglioma

Anaplastic Schwannoma

That’s not correct

Question 7Multiple sclerosis and Guillain-Barré syndrome are similar in that they both do what?

Result from demyelination by an immune reaction.

Cause permanent destruction of peripheral nerves.

Result from inadequate production of neurotransmitters.

Block acetylcholine receptor sites at the myoneuronal junction.

Question 8What is a common location to find a Schwannoma in the body?

in White Matter

on Cranial Nerve VIII

on the Optic Nerve

rising from the meninges along the spinal cord

 

NRP511 Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 7 Quiz

Question 1You see a patient with complaints of midline axial neck pain and headaches for 3 months. The pain does not travel into the upper extremities and there are no signs of sensory/motor dysfunction. Which of the following is the most likely core defect?

Fibromyalgia

Cervical spondylosis

Muscle spasm

Neuroforaminal stenosis with impingement of exiting cervical nerve roots

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